Doch was ist wirklich gesund? Wie nimmt man effizient ab? Lassen sich Altersleiden vermeiden? Kann man sich gezielt "jung essen"? Trilogie bleibt Trilogie. Geschichten aus Anthologien, Live-Programmen Willkommen in QualityLand! Und wer bei TheShop angemeldet ist, bekommt alle Produkte, die er bewusst oder unbewusst haben will, automatisch zugeschickt. Kein Mensch ist mehr gezwungen, schwierige Entscheidungen zu treffen - denn in QualityLand lautet die Antwort auf alle Fragen: o. Eigentlich hatte Harry geglaubt, er sei ein ganz normaler Junge.
Zumindest bis zu seinem elften Geburtstag. Und warum? Weil Harry ein Zauberer ist. Vor Non-English Audiobooks Native speaker or just improving your skills? Listen to our selection of audiobooks in other languages. Spanish Audiobooks Audible Latino. Editors' Favorites — Spanish Audiobooks. View all. Playlisted — Spanish Audiobooks. Editors' Favorites — Chinese Audiobooks.
Playlisted — Chinese Audiobooks. Editors' Favorites — French Audiobooks. Le village - Saison 2. Miracle Morning. Playlisted — French Audiobooks. Harry Berger Jr. The fragmentation of the beloved in Petrarchan poetry, the reduction of her attributes to the ubiquitous ideal types, has been read by Nancy Vickers as an aggressive and defensive gesture by the male lyric speaker, who fears self-dissolution as a form of sanction against the male gaze akin to the fate of Acteon, whom Diana subjects to dismemberment by his own hounds.
These poles of idealization, the sublime and the horrific, both created out of a process of fragmentation and reconstruction, are useful terms with which to view the trajectory of the Petrarchan antecedents of the Soledades. The reference to Medusa here is playful and contained by a religious frame, but it is nonetheless evocative of the fears of transgression associated with artistic self-affirmation.
The cultural implications of such practices are well noted by Berger. Berger elaborates: [T]he triumph of the visual sign entails the sacrifice of the referent […]. If the body is to be resurrected in the transcendence of art, it first has to be encrypted, repositioned, consumed, assimilated, and reborn in the beautiful sarcophagus or flesh eater of art.
The sarcophagus is adorned not only with Christian triumphs but also with ancient fragments — torsos, heads, limbs, dug out of the ground along with parts of old stories, all of them reborn in the second nature of art. The notion that the phenomenal world can be measured against universal archetypes or essences is challenged as things begin to be evaluated in the light of experience and observation. Paolo Rossi describes this change in the progressive re-estimation of the mechanical arts.
The task of orienting oneself to an uncertain reality entailed an essentially solitary struggle. I am aware of the possible but not necessarily sexist implications of this usage, and I have made an effort to use gender neutral constructs where possible in order to balance this concern with the need to accurately report the critical consensus I have drawn upon. However, I resist any essentialist implications of this stance, particularly in reference to a poem which explores precisely the breakdown of such essentialism e.
This crisis of the self is accompanied by the historical and economic crisis of Spanish empire, which stifled the very infrastructure it needed to capitalize on the wealth it had extracted from the New World. As he observes, The deeply rooted symbolic habit of mind which the Renaissance had inherited from earlier ages enabled its poets to speak of the ultimately real in terms of the phenomenally immediate, and one result was a poetic style which relies strongly on simile and its extension, allegory.
In poetry, for example, simile largely gives way to metaphor and allegory to symbolic narrative, and the texture of that poetry, purged of the representational sensuousness of the Renaissance, is permeated with the figures of contradiction — conceit, paradox, antithesis, and oxymoron. The artist is no longer to imitate nature but, through the use of his imagination, to improve upon it. Metaphor clearly surpasses simile in expressive power. As Eugenio Donato has pointed out Metaphorical language in a way destroys not only the reality of the object but also the function of the language which expresses it, since basically it operates independently of, if not against, the conceptual reality that makes language possible.
At the most fundamental level, the metaphor, instead of being a restatement of essential relations contained within reality itself, seems rather to be an epistemological tool to explore this same reality. The concrete identities of the mountains and the sea are obliterated; the terms are related metaphorically through the selective vision of the poet.
Eugenio Donato, writing of the Baroque metaphor, observes: The metaphor, through this process of mutation of objective reality, empties the concrete of its essential qualities and creates a new reality which can no longer depend on the intellect. This mode of comprehension — in fact an apprehension — is most often expressed in terms of visual experience. However, the use of the compounded metaphor is fraught with contradiction. Yet, Donato continues, Inasmuch as he takes upon himself to found the rationality of the real upon himself, he does indeed assume the function of God, and yet inasmuch as he himself is part of the same world to which he has denied any rationality, his whole creation is bound to crumble in ashes and smoke.
Metaphor begins with the things of this world. Genre is one of the major sites of contradiction in the poem, a function of a process of modernization in literature which parallels the shift from a sacerdotal conception of knowledge in the sciences. The Spanish Erasmian humanist Juan Luis Vives, writing a generation before the polemic over Gongorism, illustrates this parallel in his writings.
In works such as De tradendi disciplines and De causis corruptarum artium he upholds the direct observation and experience of nature by artisans and peasants over the ancient book knowledge of philosophers and schoolmen, inviting the learned CRISIS AND FORM 27 to develop a respect for common knowledge and the mechanical arts of the workshops and factories Rossi 5—6.
As he argues, Enraged against nature about whom they knew nothing, the dialecticians have constructed another for themselves; that is to say the nature of formalities, of individualities, of relations, of Platonic ideas and other monstrosities which cannot be understood even by those who have invented them. They attribute a name full of dignity to all these things and they call them metaphysics. If someone has an intelligence which is wholly ignorant of nature, which has a horror of her, a mind which instead has a bent for abstruse things and foolish dreams, they say that such a person possesses a metaphysical intelligence.
Y estos infinitos estilos intermedios conviene estudiarlos y clasificarlos porque hay muchos colores intermedios entre el blanco y el negro. Debiera Vm. As Paul Julian Smith has shown, Spanish critics of the Renaissance and Baroque tended to exalt epic, virtue, utility, and the Castilian, associating these with masculinity, while often denigrating lyric, decoration, sensuality, and the Italian, associating these conversely with femininity. Beverley sees a similar loss of teleological design in the poem, with forms becoming fragmented under the pressures of history.
There is still a fascination with its possibilities but, at the same time, the necessity of rendering it as a fragment. The traditional value of the pastoral as a fiction outside the contingencies of history has also become problematic in the Soledades. It can no longer distinguish itself absolutely from the tensions of the reality it escapes nor, in what amounts to the same thing, maintain itself as a unified literary mode. Rather, one response by writers to the crisis of the age was to unleash the tensions inherent in the pastoral as a genre.
There is certainly ample evidence for R. He is asserting that the artificial is transient and that only natural values are permanent in a changing world. Aspects 77—78; see also xi A brief look at the text reveals any number of illustrations of the dynamic Beverley has observed. The compass is described as an object of wonder I. Conversely, Nature is praised with references to the very civilization to which it is ostensibly opposed. Natural phenomena are no longer described with simple epithets as in the poetry of Garcilaso e.
Despite the explicit attack on seafaring, the exotic treasures of foreign trade are also terms of metaphor and comparison. The consistent cultivation of these exotic metaphorical terms is simply too dazzling to serve as an illustration of moral corruption. For Newlands, the estate poem genre26 represents a further reinvention of the pastoral mode, one variant of different forms of pastoral including the more idyllic locus amoenus of sentimental song as well as the poetry of agrarian technique elaborated by the Georgics.
The characteristics of Statian villa poetry, as will be shown, are congruent with many of the controversial features of the Soledades. Thus the Sylvae become a counterpart to epic where the poet can both praise and critique the technological progress evidenced in the wellappointed estates of his patrons 5. See Patterson, Pastoral and Ideology 19— Thus, the devastation of war is critiqued symbolically, in scenes of cutting down a sacred grove or in images of the reckless destruction of Phaeton, the quintessential image of the bad king, or in references to a future of conquest rather than to a new Golden Age Newlands , Michael Putnam notes that Virgil wrote during the mood of crisis and social upheaval around the time of the death of Julius Caesar.
Virgil himself lost his ancestral estate near Mantua as a result of land divisions and allotments to pay Roman soldiers returning from service in campaigns of imperial expansion. In the tale, a hunter of Euboea is summoned to the city for squatting on public land without paying taxes. Jones 56— Valencia was a voice of moderation regarding the treatment of witches and of the Moors, yet he did argue for the forced dispersal of the Moors as opposed to expulsion or outright genocide out of fear of an internal Islamic enemy, in the context of the history of war with the Turks.
Thus even with the more radical arbitrista Valencia there were clear limits to his plans for social justice. Such an alliance is not finally possible because it would entail the need for the aristocracy to attenuate or abandon the feudal relation of production in which their income and status depends on the exploitation of peasant labor Beverley notes the contrast in political possibilities, with the English situation, where the Puritan poets addressed a class with increasing authority Aspects 7. Both imperial poets write from the conflicted position of oppositional poetics of an empire in crisis.
Succession anxiety figures into this oppositional imperial poetics. Thus succession anxiety figures into the parallel with Statius as well — Like the Celestina, the Soledades contains formulations in a low register which parallel greater themes. Such is the case with war imagery, which in various contexts is used to create different, often opposing, tones. The use of military images in pastoral settings is often lighthearted. Though war imagery could interject a sinister tone in a pastoral setting, this does not seem to be the case in these instances, at least not overtly, since the concrete meanings of the military terms are suppressed at the service of playfulness.
Thus the description of the mountain youths who appear as rapacious crows in their zeal to compete in the high jump, while playful and lighthearted in tone, acquires greater 35 Such displays are indeed part of the historical context of the Soledades. Maravall —98 , discusses the political importance of the royal fiestas in attracting a massive audience for patriotic displays of power.
In particular, he describes the staged combats of miniature armadas in the ponds of the Retiro, as well as the frequent public fireworks shows. See also Vidal. Both the concreteness and the immediacy of the violence as well as its greater allegorical significance instill the tone with which the imagery is presented with increased seriousness; the tone appears to be one of striking alertness to the horror of war. Its flight is faster than the departure of an arrow II. The saker is described as drilling the air as if with bullets from the weapon which shares its name II.
In this passage, the tone of horror before a world engulfed by war appears established. A return to the playful tone of the pastoral setting of the first Soledad after war imagery has been presented in such a violent tone, undermines the earlier playful yoking of the pastoral with the horrors of war. The farcical tone which appears in these final stanzas is actually presaged in the falconry scene itself.
Woodward points out, the tragic becomes farcical when the plight of the crow becomes a game; the crow is transformed into a ball in a tennis match Indeed, it is this sense of experience as a game which lies at the root of the ambivalence in tone in the Soledades. In the context of the ontological insecurity of the Baroque, sport is one means of accommodation. Yet self-parody, the ultimate expression of textual contradiction, is already present in the farcical tone marking the end of the Soledades. Colin Smith, in his dispute with R.
This passage received an early and insightful analysis by Diaz de Rivas: 43 It should be noted that this argument, in essence, is taken up by Severo Sarduy, who associates the loss of an objective center in Baroque art with Baroque cosmology. See Sarduy, Barroco 67— De modo que sienpre va el Poeta devaxo de duda. Which will prevail is a function of subjectivity, of choice rather than of objective truth, and the choice is left open. The type of construction represented by this passage is repeated throughout the poem. At the same time, the assertion that Term B exists uniquely is undermined.
With a dazzling blend of contradiction and doubt, two equally valid views of reality are presented through the subversion of the norms of syntax. The perception of order or disorder is not portrayed as an absolute, but as a matter of perspective. Like the narrator of the Quijote, the poet of the Soledades is not omniscient; the writer can no longer describe the phenomenal world with certainty. The narrator splits into different personae; the normal connections between words splinter.
The fragmentation of a once ordered reality is all-pervasive, and its expression in literature finally extends to the most fundamental level: ambivalence within the poetic word. With this discussion of ambivalence in semantics we complete our picture of the Soledades as a work rent by crisis on all levels of organization. II, as cited by Roses 69— Petrarch then transfers these ideas to the field of literature in his Invective contra medicum , a first step in the humanistic appropriation of patristic writings to defend poetic obscurity Vilanova , Roses For many critics, the utility of the poem is not didactic on the level of ethics, but rather lies in its capacity to exercise the mind in a pre-Cartesian sense, in its capacity to function as an epistemological journey.
Yet Nadine Ly, I believe, hits the mark, as Rivers suggests, when she argues for an understanding of the Soledades as one of the first modern poems Muses and Masks Well, you would use the tools you had, as in the case of the Quijote: fragments of your inherited literary tradition, to craft something new.
This modal friction which informs the situation of the pilgrim shapes the imagery of the poem, filling the landscape of the Soledades with a mixture of erotic and violent images, alternately combined or juxtaposed, at times achieving an idealizing effect, at other times an effect of discord. The process of idealization of rape imagery in the Soledades has not been adequately explored by critics; indeed, those interpretations which have been ventured are problematic from a feminist perspective.
A case in point is the reading of sexual imagery in the first Soledad, which opens with the references to divine rapes and closes with a pastoral wedding. Critics have interpreted this sequence of erotic events as a progression from erotic freedom to sublimation in the domesticity of a socially sanctioned marriage. Steven F. Beverley is clearly more conscious of the violence inherent in the divine rapes, particularly in his sensitive reading of Ganymede as a violated and traumatized adolescent Aspects 29, Walker, from a different perspective, also construes the marriage as an endpoint in a trajectory towards sublimation; in the wedding, he argues, sacred love is reconciled with the profane Diane Wolfthal has pointed to the role of rape imagery in the illustration of marital doctrine in a cultural context in which marriages were arranged to unite properties.
Another popular emblem she identifies in this case for use on wedding banners was the rape of the Sabine women; because some of the Sabines had accepted the rape they became models of female self-sacrifice. The integration of rape imagery into actual social customs functions as the sort of sublimation which these critics have described, a sublimation that is different in some respects from the aesthetic dynamics of the text, to which we shall return.
Yet what is being camouflaged in such notions of sublimation? Is it freedom? The implicit assumption behind this view of marriage as a socially desirable accommodation of male sexual violence is highly questionable. The notion that rape is the primal, instinctual act which civilization must of necessity moderate may reflect patriarchal attitudes from Plutarch to Freud, but it hardly reflects an essential reality. Men are not by nature rapists; sexual power relations are socially constructed, perhaps originally in the foundation of the patriarchal state.
In a seductive form of syncretism, the iconography of Goddess worship is reversed to entice the submission of the newly conquered; the rapist of the new religion is given the attributes of the old, resonant with nostalgia for a previous harmony between the sexes and with nature. Regarding the camouflaging of violent conquest in the New World, the Virgin of Guadalupe is the classic example of syncretism, incorporating features of an Aztec goddess to entice the submission of the newly conquered.
The following passage is particularly illustrative: The next day, the Indians, enraged at seeing their wives and daughters taken in slavery, assembled and attacked the Spaniards from the rear […]. The Indians gave their terrible war cry and wounded many Spaniards, and the Spaniards, seeing themselves in a bind and unable to enjoy the women, killed them all by ripping open their bellies with the sword. Indeed, regardless of their disposition, it does not seem impossible that the paintings were both in the tradition of didactic allegory as well as sources of erotic stimulation for their patron.
Ven, Himeneo, ven; ven, Himeneo. The chorus wishes that the hypothetical daughters of the bride excel in weaving, outdoing Arachne, not by depicting divine rapes, an arrogant gesture toward authority which got her changed into a spider, but by depicting the transgression of the artist herself. As John Beverley has argued, the Soledades opens a space in which the crisis of Spanish imperialism can be explored by an educated elite of aristocratic readers: These readers are, like the poet himself, isolated and contradictory figures, aristocratic radicals who sometimes challenge, sometimes celebrate the authority of the social class that nurtures them.
To the extent that they understand what has to be done, they are powerless to act on that understanding, compelled to hold it as a secret shared in conversation, allusions, letters. At one extreme is idealization presented without any overt sense of contradiction, reaching a kind of limit in which the irreconcilable is reconciled in poetic form. As Gaylord has shown, in this speech navigation is linked to rape through phallic symbols e. The object of this sexual aggression tends to be marked as feminine. Referring to the temptations of the exotic forest of clove in the Moluccas Cf.
Such a displacement echoes the animal aspect of the Goddess as she is presented in the divine rapes, and forms a point of convergence for erotic and violent, even martial, imagery in the text. If the hunt, as Beverley has suggested, can represent a sublimation of military deeds Aspects 65, 99 , it also realizes sexual aggression by venting it upon the animal world. The inherent contradiction of combining eros and violence, suppressed in the commonplace, is now made painfully explicit.
This figure of the bleeding jewel makes patent the contradictions inherent in heroic rape imagery. While we are presented with an object meant to be contemplated aesthetically, we are also made aware of the futility of this process of objectification. The loftiness of the poetic language, with its lapidary register, contrasts sharply with the living, bleeding body.
The phallic shaft and gaping wound form a shocking emblem of sexual violence which belies all attempts at idealization. The contrast between the pain described and its re-creation as an ideal, suppressed in the figure of heroic rape, is unveiled in these scenes of hunting; the violence here is too graphic to contain. The portrayal of the rape of the natural world reveals the underlying sexual violence of idealized rape. Jammes — This dynamic, as will be shown, is also realized thematically. The conflation of eros and violence associated with cruel decorativeness, which is observed in descriptions of the hunt, continues throughout the poem, linked with increasingly destructive tendencies.
These destructive tendencies, as will be shown, culminate in the falconry section, which is presented both as an allegory of European war and as a play with apocalypse, as the pilgrim witnesses the 17 Skulsky 52 suggests the term in reference to Ovid; in conversation he has shared with me the idea of applying it more generally to European Baroque poetry. There are further episodes in the text which, while devoid of any erotic content, display a similar aesthetic detachment from psychic pain.
Yet, suddenly, his speech is cut short, as he is whisked away by a hunting party. The youth is left admiring the skill of the goatherd and the music of the mountain girls I. In a similar encounter, as Gaylord has shown, the pilgrim is unable to respond to the mountain man who recognizes on him the stains of the sea which had taken his own son I. In many of these instances, rape imagery is key, perhaps because it lends itself well to various Gongorine projects: the critique of politics, of sexual and social relationships, and of the artistic process.
Beverley has in essence argued as much, when he cites the collapse of the division between foreground and background in Baroque painting as a model for the trajectory of the pastoral in the Soledades. In the Soledades the subject itself is expressed through the aesthetics of the fragment; the various hypothetical and negated subjects in replica of the Arachne section are like reflections in a fragmented mirror endlessly at play. The ironic selfreflexivity voiced in that passage presupposes a radically unstable30 lyric subject, whose aspiration to stand outside his own poetic process is even more suggestive of Symbolism than of an incipient Romantic sensibility.
This collapse of mediation, which is expressed aesthetically in the Soledades, has its origins in the breakdown of Platonic idealism, and is manifested throughout European Baroque writing in a reconfiguration of the conventional representation of woman as symbolic of that ideal. The critique of the notion of woman as mediatrix is a function of the social program of the late Renaissance.
As noted in our discussion of the Celestina, Huizinga maintains that the ritualistic vassalage of the courtly lover to his lady idealized a brutal reality; the worship of woman, modeled in part on the cult of the Virgin, was but the obverse of the degradation of woman in feudal society Cervantes made these contradictions patent in his satirical portrayal of Dulcinea.
Beverley is correct to suggest a counterposition of erotic possibilities as a corollary to the play of historical possibility in the poem. What opportunities for female agency indeed existed in the social structures of Counter-reformation Spain? That falling apart again is interesting — maybe it points beyond marriage? And yet more is also at issue. She has merely traded the confines of one gender for another. Yet another interpretation is possible. But these possibilities, like those for social revolution, are exhausted at the very moment of their emergence, running beyond their full course, collapsing into failure before they can be realized.
Both writers, to a certain degree, will deconstruct the anticipated progression towards reconciliation in marriage. We, as literary critics, have inherited a tradition which sees rape through rose colored glasses. Less than twenty-five years later, Roland Barthes adopts a similar position, relying on the example of Sade in his otherwise fascinating writings on the pleasure of the text. The Soledades, for the most part, develops a scopic regime which contrasts with a Cartesian or Albertinian perspective, although, as I will demonstrate, the poem contains pre-Cartesian elements.
As Bradley Nelson, writing of the silva, argues, The form itself contributes to an atmosphere that could be described as contingent as opposed to allegorical or teleological. Think, for example, of a forest and the sensations that accompany the entrance into the trees, especially in a big forest whose limits cannot be immediately perceived. Yet as Nelson implies, the scopic regime which dominates the Soledades is unquestionably that of the Baroque. How different is the depiction of correspondences in the opening of the Soledades.
The description does not aim to present an objective truth of universal analogy, but the confused perspective of the peregrino. Objects are depicted as a result of their interaction with the subject; rather than being portrayed as static entities in themselves, they become a product of perception. The relationships and analogies Medieval man discovered in nature were believed to belong to an order imposed by God, who set them down, as if part of one vast book, when he created the universe. Yet the opposite is also true. The reference to embroidery is from the first draft.
The cultivated style of the Soledades levels all reality, the represented and its representation, into one common body of artifice. The Soledades thus portrays human thought, our capacity to perceive and to represent, as inherently solipsistic, revealing more about the nature of the self than about the reality it attempts to apprehend. On the positive side, his attempt to remake reality manifests the enormous creativity associated with artistic autonomy. On the negative side, the quest for the absolute is necessarily defeated by its very subjectivism. The subjective vision becomes frustrated in solipsism, and the solitary nature of this impossible quest for the absolute produces a certain agonism which, as will be demonstrated, is played out aesthetically.
In one case, he reverses the normal order of perception. As Gates observes, At times, depth is gained by successive points of view, first with the object in the distance dimly outlined, and then with a close-up that by its startling metaphor contrasts the two points of view. The figure of the moth drawn to light thus becomes incorporated into a play on focus and perception. Such widening and narrowing constitute an oscillation in focus which is expressed on a larger scale as telescopic and microscopic vision, reflecting the rise of the new optics.
These two types of vision can be seen as the product of the breakdown of the previous notions of microcosm and macrocosm. The ordering of scale is no longer a function of a hierarchical system of correspondences, but is appropriated by the human subject. The poet is not looking for smaller reflections of the divinely-ordered macrocosm, but is creating his own micro- and macrovision.
Thus there is a preponderance of map-like views in the Soledades, reflecting in part the Virgilian tradition of teichoskopia. Conversely, the Soledades depict tiny details as if they were seen through a magnifying lens. In this context the wall motif identified by Woodward acquires an additional significance; the image of a shifting, changing or half-open wall is an emblem for the fluctuation of the limits of perception.
Warnke defines the imagery of assimilation as the backdrop which reveals the unreality of the phenomenal world. Era el vasto marco adecuado a ese retiro en la soledad negadora de todas las cosas exteriores […] libre para poder recrearlas artificialmente por entero. Conversely, in the imagery of disintegration the divisions between things become absolute. In a metaphor describing the isthmus of Panama, the two oceans are now portrayed as hopelessly divided, as a snake whose head is forever kept from merging with its tail I.https://discnishartcolod.ml/personnel-turbulence-the-policy-determinants.php
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The categories of human, animal, plant, the inanimate, and the mechanical are not fixed in the Soledades. The fact that the merger of categories, a natural result of the cultivation of metaphor, is ubiquitous in the Soledades is a clear indication that the organization of perception is in flux, the imagination empowered.
This elevation of artifice to the level of divine creation is repeated in almost magical imagery throughout the poem. A false night is created by the crows II. In the description of the palace, architecture transcends the formal constraints of geometry II. As if to mirror the excitement of the age of exploration, art is charged with a sense of new horizons; the normal limits of perception are broken in seemingly impossible acts of human creation.
The grotesque, while functioning as a major motif in the Polifemo, assumes a less prominent role in the Soledades. Nonetheless it has its importance, operating as a symbolic pole which stands for the fear of the Baroque subject before the solitary task of making sense out of a universe which has lost its order. The grotesque takes many forms in the Soledades.
Structurally, the grotesque is expressed in the obsessive quality of proliferation in the poem which will be discussed in the following chapter ; the abundant generation of compounded metaphors resembles the production of arabesques, grottesche, the elaborate manifestation of a phenomenon which we shall examine in further detail shortly, horror vacui.
Gongora's Soledades and the Problem of Modernity - PDF Free Download
However, its use in a comic, arbitrary manner undercuts this sense of moral order. The violent death becomes an arbitrary occasion for theatre; the ludic detachment in the creation of spectacle from pain which we have witnessed on other occasions has a leveling effect, disrupting the order created by the previous, normative use of the theatrum mundi topos in the poem. While the grotesque emerges as a symbolic pole representing the crisis of perception in its elaboration of the insidious fear of epistemological chaos, the poem points to one possibility for re-imposing order.
Technique in and of itself begins to govern a new order of perception. This occurs in the rise of Rationalism, in the reorganization of perception based on a view of the world as mechanism, a view which is foreshadowed in the Soledades. Indeed, one is struck by the number of times a word associated with human industry, or in particular, a mechanical device, is used as a term of metaphor. While his words are literally a call to return to a prior state of integration and correspondence between man and his surroundings, they include an implicit recognition that this correspondence no longer holds as an assumed order of things, but must be imposed by mind.
If Rationalism is to offer a new order of perception, it will be a conflicted one, first because the breakdown of the sacerdotal worldview carried with it the loss of the absolute authority of an integrated universe. Yet another source of conflict lies in the fact that Man, despite his freedom to respond to reality subjectively, now loses his position as a privileged creature; if Man is no longer a little copy of the divine, the inevitable fear will be that he, too, is but mechanism. One version of this fear which Castillo has studied, horror vacui, as we shall see in the next chapter, becomes a focal point for the tensions of the rise of modernity in the Soledades, as the aesthetic expression of the crisis in the relationship between the self and the phenomenal world extends to the limits of time and space.
During the seventeenth century, the established perception of the very limits of time and space is called into question. The Baroque subject is stripped of a past sense of integration into the cosmos and faces the threat of dissolution in the indefinite expanse of the universe. Eternity and infinity seem to engulf him, and he projects his fear of self-dissolution onto the phenomenal world; he envisions the world engulfing itself.
While Reformation theologians saw the portents of Apocalypse in the findings of the new astronomy, the intimation of Apocalypse is ultimately rooted in the Baroque response to the idea of infinity Nicolson As Frank J. Warnke states, The popularity of the topos of the end of the world is based on a feature of sensibility more widespread than either devotional fervor or concern over the new science. It is […] based on the expansive nature of the Baroque imagination as a whole, that feature […] which stresses the unreality of the phenomenal world and, discontent with the classical conception of an ordered and enclosed world, is incapable of imagining a world without imagining also its dissolution.
The wide expanses of the poem — the sea, the mountain vistas, etc. Poulet implies that the conception of time in the seventeenth century is a result of the solitude of Baroque man, the monadic subject described by Maravall. According to Poulet, the isolation which the individual experiences as a result of the demise of the Medieval worldview translates itself into a sense of separation from the modes of time. The contradictions inherent in the seventeenth-century concept of time are exploited by the poet. As Lowry Nelson, in his study of Baroque lyric poetry, writes, A fundamental paradox results from the double view of time, under a finite and under an infinite aspect [ Gaylord, like Beverley Aspects 83— , observes a tension between history and poetic myth in the Soledades.
Yet more is at issue. The loss of mediation between the eternal and the moment becomes the source of intriguing and conflicted time structures in the poem.
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This study, however, proposes to focus less on the tenses themselves than on an unusual pattern of alternation of past and present tenses, which is similar to the phenomenon that Nelson has observed in the Polifemo and other Baroque poems. This phenomenon of tense alternation — a practice that extends well beyond customary rhetorical license — has proved problematic for readers of the Soledades. This play with tenses is not without meaning, however. The seemingly illogical insertion of the present tense amid past tense actions is a fruitful paradox. Such is indeed the case in this passage of the Soledades, where the odd present tense can be read as an eternal present.
Viewed in its entirety, the passage describes the interaction of psychic, inner time with the time of external events. Traditionally, the life cycle of the phoenix is viewed as a myth of redemption, a myth of eternal and inevitable rebirth. This empty repetition suggests the nihilism behind the breakdown of the traditional Judeo-Christian view of time.
In this technique, human time appears to be annihilated under the weight of eternity. Without the mediation of an integrating worldview, the structure of chronology collapses, the future imploding into the past as part of a circular process of negation. A cantar dulce, y a morirme luego: Si te perdona el fuego que mis huesos vinculan, en su orilla, tumba te bese el mar, vuelta la quilla.
The amoebean song continues toward an even greater implosion of time. The association of courtly love laments with temporal paradox suggests that frustrated eros has become an emblem for the solitude of the Baroque subject before the task of creating his own experience of duration. In the Soledades, duration is as elusive as erotic fulfillment.
To feel oneself live is to feel oneself leave behind, in every instant, an instant which was the very self. As Maravall points out, clock-making begins to flourish, perhaps because it affords man the opportunity to measure, and in a sense, to feel control over the passage of time In the Soledades, objects pass through a series of metaphoric transformations. The movement of the wedding guests evokes images of flying ships and gulls with wings like sails. Their shifting then transforms them into waning and waxing moons, and finally their feathered forms become letters written in the sky I.
A similar series of metamorphoses occurs with the light the peregrino sees when he first arrives on the land. Such rapid movement and transformations are predominant in the Soledades; they are the natural result of the condensation of description created by the cultivation of metaphor as metalepsis. Occasionally this rapid motion slows to near timelessness. Yet these cases are isolated instances which are contradicted by the overwhelming transience of artistic creation in the poem. The images of artifice in the Soledades dramatize this process; they burst forth for an instant and then self-destruct.
In a broader sense, this rhythm of creation and loss reflects the ambivalent position of the Baroque self: man has been posed as a new center of the cosmos, the creator of his own world, yet he lacks the authority of the absolute, and appears diminished by the new awareness of space.
The oscillation of time in the Soledades between expansion and dissolution can thus be seen as the expression of this anxiety over the ontological status of man. An awareness of space pervades the Soledades. The natural world, as Sinicropi has shown, acquires an autonomous presence, while the importance of the human subject is symmetrically reduced , — The wide vistas in the poem become the terrain for a competition between man and nature.
In other passages, nature seems to gain the upper hand. As Fuentes writes, Todas las cosas han perdido su concierto. For example, a bonfire, said to rival the sun in its immensity and brightness, implodes into itself, its logs converted into its sepulcher I. In some of these cases, the surge towards self-destruction of the natural world or its violent destruction in the hunt is marked by key terms e. This focus on dissolution informs the greater structure of the Soledades; the poem is ultimately constructed as a movement from proliferation to annihilation.
The work manifests an epic inclusiveness in its incorporation of the various genres of poetry, in its global inventory of the sites of exploration, and in its various catalogs. Yet despite this tremendous inclusiveness, the poem as a whole evinces the same trend toward destruction which has been observed on various levels within the text. Soledades ; my translation. This has led Beverley to view the episode as an allegory for European war, a view with which I concur Aspects 93, 99— What is interesting is that this political and military imagery is mixed with the astronomical imagery of Apocalypse, suggesting an endpoint of cosmic annihilation within the trajectory I have proposed, as well as a relationship to a tradition of Hapsburg iconography.
Indeed, the historical and political dimension of the scene can be appreciated as part of a pattern of the deconstruction of messianic imagery associated with the Hapsburg emperor. Marie Tanner has studied the messianic beliefs associated with the Hapsburg emperor in the art and literature of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and has identified a Christian tradition of the appropriation of Roman theocratic mythology of imperial destiny. In this reworking of Roman political and religious myth, the Hapsburg emperor is now cast as the last descendant of Aeneas, divinely ordained to defeat the infidel and to unite the hemispheres in the Christian faith in a new Holy Roman Empire 10 Compare II.
It should be noted that the dissolution of numerous images in the text is marked by the repeated use of the verb desatar. This imperial destiny is enshrined in the imagery of Apocalypse; the final victory of the Christian emperor, it is predicted, will usher in the Last Judgment and the Second Coming of Christ The belief in the Apocalyptic destiny of the Hapsburg emperor plays a key role historically in the projects of the imperial court. Philip II designed the Escorial to conform to imperial conventions of sacred architecture as the rebuilt temple of Solomon, and decorated the palace with Apocalyptic tapestries The constellation of the Southern Cross appears later, but buried decoratively within the ouroboros emblem I.
The consignment of this constellation to such an apparently ornamental status is significant, because it guts the sign of its didactic function. From the mount of Eden, the four stars that formed the cross had been visible to Adam and Eve, but after the Fall they vanished from the sight of man. When the equator was crossed by Iberian navigators, the Southern Cross miraculously appeared again on the horizon. This established an eternal resting place for the ruler of the New World that communicated a subtle apocalyptic message, for the heavenly reappearance of the cross was said to signal the Parousia.
Such a deflation of the political and religious imperative behind the imagery of Apocalypse becomes most pronounced in the falconry scene. The spectacle of birds of prey of various nations, many identified metaphorically with military weapons, the astronomical signs, and the final transformation of the crow into a world which explodes, together form a spectacle of Apocalypse which debunks the millennial pretensions of the Hapsburgs by counterpoising the real history of European war to the pseudo-history of divinely ordained empire.
Astronomical imagery appears throughout the poem. It occurs in the frequent reference to constellations, which is a standard device to establish setting in the pastoral. Significantly, such references to stars are associated with war imagery in the description of a beehive. Here the reference to Dido, like the earlier reference to Palinurus, evokes the sacrifice and betrayal behind imperial heroics. The early association of astronomical and war imagery thus lays the basis for their combination as ideological critique in the episode of falconry.
The hawking scene represents the culmination of the use of astronomical imagery in the poem. The descriptions of the hunting party, their kept birds, and their prey all include both astronomical and military imagery.
Amiga, deja de disculparte [Girl, Stop Apologizing]
The horses of the falconers are speckled with stars II. Astronomical imagery becomes more pronounced in establishing the setting of the hunt of the crows. These birds obscure the sun by their great number, creating a false night. The gyrfalcon literally becomes the zenith above the cloud of crows —9. Regarding trauma and the interpellation of the peregrino, see Chapter 2; see Munjic for a reading of the scene in terms of conflicting models of male subjectivity — What is interesting is that this scenario represents anticipated future military threats, underscoring its quality of realistic historical prophecy; during the period of composition of the Soledad segunda absent the final 43 lines, Jammes argues that it was completed shortly after , Spain was not at war with the Dutch, having signed a twelve-year truce in in the face of dwindling resources Jammes, ed.
In this respect the episode functions to disrupt a Counter-reformation theocratic notion of prophecy, consistent with the more generalized frustration of teleology we have studied on other levels in the poem. This ending, while seemingly inconclusive, does effect a type of closure, albeit an unusual one. As with portrayals of time within the poem, the Soledades as a whole rebels against traditional progression; organized in the dimension of space, it obviates any linear completion. In any case, captive gyrfalcons had been well disseminated throughout Europe for use in falconry for centuries by the time of the composition of the poem.
The Spring with which the poem opens already contains its own negation; it is identified with the death of eros, the rape of Europa itself perhaps an early allusion to European war. The obverse function, infinite expansion, can also be observed in the greater structure of the poem. This fear was easily channeled into the orthodoxy of the Counter-reformation.
But for the secularly-minded, other solutions were posed. His experiments with temporal and spatial boundaries are thus both startling and solipsistic, empty, and that emptiness culminates in the end of all time and space. Various critics have cited technical similarities. Note, for example, the low quality of the translations used by Milner. Other, less compelling, formal similarities have been noted e. In a more fundamental sense the work of both poets is marked by a common, almost ascetic zeal to create a subjective vision which would attain the stature of the absolute.
Both evince the same obsessive pattern of aspiration and failure, the same oscillation between the power and the impotence of the human mind and its language. There are, of course, obvious dissimilarities between the two poets. Hugo Friedrich points out further differences. Perhaps the greatest difference between the two poets is their degree of historical consciousness. The Soledades, on the other hand, passively reflects the problems of modernity at their earliest stage, responding to the epistemological crisis of the breakdown of the Medieval and Renaissance conception of a divinely ordered cosmos: pre-Kant, pre-modern physics.
In sum, it would prove more accurate to view the relationship between Gongorism and Symbolism as one of trajectory rather than one of comparison per se. With these words Borges suggests that there is no unmediated reading of a text, and that diachronic and synchronic readings are but complementary aspects of the same critical process. In keeping with the limits of this study, I have chosen a particular sequence of poems in order to illustrate this trajectory.
Todo es dios. Civilization in ruin has produced a poetry of exhaustion, a solipsistic poetry of the mind.
There is no reality outside the self. He condemns the previous poetry for closing off such an integration. The sacred is identified with the erotic; the road to mythic redemption is through otherness. Acodado en montes que ayer fueron ciudades, Polifemo bosteza. In the fifth stanza Paz offers a positive response to this possibility of the end of time: the infinite expansion of the instant.
Time can be consecrated, can acquire an eternal presence, in moments of communion between self and other Paz, El arco — The next stanza describes one final return to the solipsism with which the poem began. Thought freezes time, hovering godlike over the still water. Indeed, as would be consistent with the entire tenor of the poem, this impasse is not only ontological but poetic.
The moment of communion surpasses temporal divisions; the anemic sun is transformed into a round, luminous orange whose segments are filled with the same yellow sweetness. The poetic word is freed to evoke the plenitude of things outside a self-contained world of the mind. Conversely, Muerte sin fin can be identified with the poetry of solitude, the poetry which Paz defines as both Symbolist and Gongorine. Anthony Stanton and Gabriel Wolfson —46 see Muerte sin fin in the tradition of the Soledades as an extended silva. As will be shown, the parallel between these works is more substantive.
His aspirations continually failed; the Soledades is a perpetual spiral of self-destruction. In Muerte sin fin the writing of the poem is identified with the moment in which God set the universe in motion. As I begin this discussion of Muerte sin fin, I would like to take the opportunity to thank Professor Jaime Giordano, whose course on Latin American poetry included a stimulating analysis of this poem.
In Muerte sin fin this futile, doomed quest is expressed as a search for pure form, portrayed through the central image of a glass of water. The form provided by the glass which molds the formless matter, water, can be momentarily subtracted from the glass of water. Like Dauster , she considers that poem to be a prelude to Muerte sin fin. As Mordecai S. Time is paralyzed in a stasis which is characteristic of Symbolist poetry. In Muerte sin fin, that breakdown is re-enacted as a modern fable. The force behind the creation and order of the universe has proved to be a mirage; God is presented as a star whose light reaches the earth centuries after it has already died.
Where the Baroque encountered a universe which had lost its center, the modern encounters a black hole. The collapse of time is paralleled by the collapse of creation. The catalogs of creatures one observes in the Celestina and in the Soledades23 are repeated in a chain of reverse evolution. The poem is, like the Soledades, constructed according to a broken mythos; the false myth of return is the product of a broken image of the world. The return to origins is then itself undone. As in the Soledades, the erotic is identified with death; death is the only route outside the self in this solipsistic enterprise.
These passages represent the ultimate aspiration of the poet: to overcome the inherent anthropomorphism of human thought. His observation can be expanded to include the catalogs of other creatures as well. The latent image throughout Muerte sin fin is that of one pair of eyes gazing, Narcissus-like, into another pair of eyes which are its mirrors. Tres poetas 19 Yet Gorostiza suggests the possibility of another response. While the poem fails to name the absolute, it succeeds in another sense by at least evoking infinite possibility: a total, if illusory, vision of the universe. Blanco28 is a prime example of this future poetry.
The quotation from the Hevajra Tantra signals a reaction to an ascetic tradition, an assertion that the spiritual is attained through matter rather than against it. The ascetic quality of the Symbolist quest, its search for a form whose purity is derived from absence, will be abandoned in Blanco.
By naming naming, the text aspires to enter a kind of spirit beyond this; like a tantric adept, the poet works through the material — through words — to create a silence. The legacies of Tantrism and Symbolism also inform the structure of Blanco. Blanco is composed as a dispersion of signs in space, a space which is not the immense, engulfing void that Fuentes observes in Baroque art, but is rather, as Jean Franco notes, a field of potential relations 84— The reader participates in the organization of the poem by selecting from the alternative readings proposed by Paz.
These alternative readings reflect a tantric organization. The emanation of smaller poems from the center of Blanco, as Ruth Needleman points out, parallel the tantric design of the mandala as well as its incarnation as chakras in the human body Blanco differs from its Symbolist predecessors, however, in its joyous aspiration to plenitude. Needleman specifically discusses the representation of the mandala as a lotus whose petals emerge from a central corolla. My phrasing here refers to the fact that the original editions of the poem are printed on a single page, which is unfolded like a fan during the process of reading.
With this technique of derivatio Paz elaborates upon the tantric concept of bindu,35 positing a seed syllable out of which all words come. Yet, like colors, individual words are only a part of the total presence, or whiteness, of language. In Blanco language is portrayed as a ringing of changes of sounds about something which cannot be contained by any one word. The series of transformations which words undergo in Blanco is paralleled in other, musical cycles of transformation. Paz identifies poems of transit between the four major colors, the four elements, and four levels of knowledge.
In these cycles of transformation perception is made relative, as one element is transformed into the next. The dissolution of category boundaries, typical of Surrealist art, does not produce the horror we observed in the Soledades. The absence of cosmic order is resolved in an Eastern view of integration. The polar divisions of reality which form the basis of Western thought are overruled.
Like words on the pages of the poem, all things are but images, variations generated out of the same central source. The process of generation resembles the architecture of a Hindu temple, which is composed of an exterior depicting millions of images, and an interior representing their source as a symbol of erotic union. In Blanco, the source of all the correspondences between words, levels of thought, elements, and colors, in short, between all things of the world, is this central moment of communion between self and other. The return of the self to plenitude through de-individuation is paralleled in the return of the poetic word to a silence which is now charged with potential.
The poem ends with a reprise — a sort of Indian raga — in which key passages of the poem are shuffled in an arbitrary order. The logic and ultimately the chronology which separate language and reality break down so that the poem can be apprehended as a totality which transcends temporal divisions. This fullness is the final silence of Blanco, the transparency left at the end of the poem. Paz has found a way to use the language of the self to get beyond the self, to undermine the inherent solipsism of language.
If language stands as a mirror between the self and the phenomenal world, Paz strips this mirror of its silver barrier, imparting 36 Paz uses this term to describe the original edition of Blanco. See Paz, preface to the Ladera este edition of Blanco I am applying his term to time in Blanco. The rise of technology enhanced the perception of the cosmos as mechanism, devoid of any integrating image. The subject of modernity becomes a prisoner of his abstractions; so too, the modern poet.
Symbolism, like Gongorism, is driven to attain the absolute, yet is consistently defeated by the subjective limits of poetic expression. Rather, he seeks to dislodge poetry from its impasse by reframing the goals of the poet. He abandons the quest for the absolute and its inevitable foundering in nihilism. For Paz, poetic creation does not emerge ex nihilo, only to be immediately and inexorably lost to the void.
Instead he draws on Eastern and indigenous beliefs39 to find a positive view of the space surrounding the fragmented universe of the modern era. He sees potential rather than loss in blank space, because it provides a field for new configurations, and identifies a new poetry corresponding to this view of space.
El arco 39 In addition to using aspects of Tantrism, Paz employs the imagery of the Aztec water cycle to give his poem the attributes of a mythos. The frustration of this quest is expressed as massive annihilation: Apocalypse in the Soledades and Muerte sin fin. Fear of self-dissolution is projected onto the poetic creation, which, in turn, self-destructs. Yet in Blanco self-dissolution does not entail loss of self; in moments of erotic union it signifies a return to wholeness.
The journey of the poetic word past the barrier of self-reflection to a fertile silence is identified with the moment of the union of self and other in erotic love. The reconciliation between self and other creates a harmonious relationship between self and world. While in the Soledades the loss of a mediatrix is a statement of disorientation, Woman in Blanco does not mediate between appearances and ultimate reality. In both cases the poets are defeated by their quest for the absolute; they are repeatedly confronted with the subjective limits of human time.
In Blanco, on the other hand, the very subjective moments of human contact are the basis for a transcendence of temporality.
Time is depicted as pure presence, neither eternal nor temporal, but one absolute time. Thus Blanco, in its response to the crisis of the modern, is able to transcend the impasse reached initially in the Soledades and later in Symbolist poetry. Yet Blanco remains equivocal. Paz erects in Blanco a kind of erotic hortus conclusus outside of history,42 where the myth of the primitive functions, much like the pastoral often functioned within Renaissance epic, as a utopian counterpoint in nationalist literature.
But if harmony between humanity, its creations and nature is a social goal beyond the province of art, poetry, the hymn amid the ruins, can still point the way. Polvo soy de aquellos lodos. We do, however, know that Vallejo consciously worked to incorporate the influence of early Peninsular poetry. Yet most critics agree that the poem mourns the destruction of indigenous civilization from a position of political agency.
Antonio Cornejo Polar has pointed out that the poem and the others which accompany it are a reaction to specific historical circumstances: the sudden and rapid modernization of Trujillo by international capital during the five-year period of — Cut off from any possibility of future, the figures and landscapes are bathed in the fading light of what has gone. Why not argue instead that Spanish America experienced the modernity that was organic to it, without having the latter carry forever the mark of a weakness and an incompleteness that only arise from the comparison with its metropolitan counterpart?
But to what end? The Symbolist fall of the word into the reification of language and its final death at its origins become for Vallejo the fall of his people. Thus Vallejo engages in a radical re-elaboration of symbolist poetics which both preserves its quality of defamiliarization — its radical critique of language — while reorienting the symbolist quest back into material and historical reality. Peyre provides basic close readings of some of the French texts under discussion in Burnshaw.
As in the Soledades, the fragmentation of the body parallels the destruction of the body politic, a body politic Vallejo elaborates as an indigenous pantheism. The founding of the city is thus undone as the anticipated Incan emperor is immobilized in the lake of his origins; he is evoked like the poet only to disappear into a landscape of tombs. In the final lines of the poem, the entire hillside, with its millennial eyes and dreams, is left blindfolded.
Like Muerte sin fin, the poem ends in utter negation and stasis. The contemplation of ruins occurs in the context of the Gongorine and Symbolist figure of temporal implosion, with the apocalyptic specter of a Falangist future collapsing into the present. The poem has been well studied and these are the more thorough close readings. Binary oppositions are frequent, as are images of tautology and paralysis, reflecting the crisis of the historical moment, in which the failure of the Spanish revolution and the rise of fascism in Europe appear imminent.
Related Aliento a muerte (COLECCIÓN PÚRPURA) (Spanish Edition)
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