Mohammed and His Successors

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Administrative changes

The four caliphs were more political figures than spiritual leaders. By military force the first caliph, Abu Bakr, brought all the tribes in the Arabian peninsula under the rule of Islam. Under the second caliph Omar or Hadrat Umar Farooq — a phenomenal expansion began, which continued for about a hundred years.

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The Muslim armies defeated the armies of the Sassanian Persian and Byzantine empires. Northward they occupied Syria, and Damascus was the capital of the Umayyad Dynasty — Only Europe would remain virtually untouched.

Scholars are the Prophet's Successors

After the assassination of Othman or Hadrat Uthman, the third caliph, in , increasing tension arose within the Muslim community. It also outlines marriage guidelines and other moral principles for Muslims. If crimes are committed, Sharia law is known for its harsh punishments. Adultery can carry the penalty of death by stoning. However, many Muslims do not support such extreme measures.

While some Muslims use their faith to justify terrorism, the vast majority do not. In fact, Muslims are frequently victims of violence themselves. Recent surveys have found that in countries with high Muslim populations, the majority of Muslims have overwhelmingly negative views of terrorist groups like ISIS. While Muslims aim to clear up misconceptions about their faith, the religion continues to spread rapidly. Experts predict Islam will surpass Christianity as the largest religion by the end of the century.

Islam, BBC. What is Sharia Law and How is it Applied?

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    Mohammed and His Successors

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    Both the Old Testament and the New Testament have undergone changes over the centuries, This was an extremely controversial appointment, as other Muslims argued that Muhammad had designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Perhaps with that in mind, Ali neither supported nor actively opposed the election of Abu Bakr, who reigned briefly as caliph and effectively suppressed the various uprisings. Those who became the Sunni believed instead that their leaders should be elected from among those most capable of worldly as well as spiritual leadership.

    Q&A Did the Prophet appoint a successor

    Both sides occasionally gained control in the fractious early Caliphate, and although Ali eventually became the fourth caliph, his reign was short and ended in assassination.

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    Mohammed and His Successors Mohammed and His Successors
    Mohammed and His Successors Mohammed and His Successors
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