Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)


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The unbeaten Ridhwan, regarded as Singapore's biggest hope, has already noted two wins this year and his team will be seeing this as a logical step up in class. As for Ambunda this is probably his last chance saloon, and at the age of 38 it's hard to see where he would go if he lost here. Saying that however Ambunda has only lost to world class fighters, Tomoki Kameda and Moises Flores, and he could well have one final performance left in him. Another major bout on this card will see Filipino Bantamweight contender Michael Dasmarinas , 19 face off against Ghanaian puncher Manyo Plange , Coming in to this Dasmarinas has won his last 10, with 8 stoppages, including a big victory over Karim Guerfi last time out.

Not much is known about Plange, however this will be his first bout outside of Ghana, and will be a massive step up in class for him. In another title bout Malaysian fighter Muhammad Meeraj , 4 will take on teenager Natthawut Masamin , 5. He will be defeating that title here against his Thai foe.

Masamin, the Thai Middleweight champion, has a very misleading record and gave Yuki Nonaka real issues earlier this year. We think Meeraj should have the size to win, but this is no gimme and could be a very tough contest to call. In a potentially fan friendly contest fans will see Keng Fai Hui , 4 take on Abdelelah Karroum , 3.

Both men have a reputation for being heavy handed and it seems likely that both will come out swinging here. Hui, a 23 year old from Malaysia, was held to a draw last time out, against Alexander David. Karroum on the other hand is a Singaporean based French born fighter who has stopped his first 3 opponents in a combined 4 rounds.

Expected explosive action here! Taipei, Taiwan History is set to be made in Taiwan as the country hosts it's most notable show in history, with a couple of title fights in Taipei. Although his record doesn't show it Watanabe is a very talented fighter who has mixed at a very good level, losing to the likes of Masayuki Ito, Satoshi Hosono, Jae Sung Lee and Hisashi Amagasa. Although a talented boxer Watanabe is best known for his insane toughness, which saw him fight through a crimson mask against Lee for almost the entire fight. The Thai is much less well established, despite being 39 years old.

His most notable bout to date have been losses to the likes of Hisashi Amagasa, AJ Banal and Joel Brunker, and they were all several years ago. Lorkham at his best might have been an interesting test for Watanabe, but this version or Lorkham is little more than body for Watanabe to beat in the main event of the show. The 29 year old Huang lost 3 of her first 6 bouts, including a contest against Ji Hye Woo, though has since gone unbeaten, albeit against dreadful opposition.

Aged 20 the Thai is the younger fighter by far, but she has also come up short, losing to Yuko Henzan and Olga Gurova. This is a very limited match up, but does give the fans in Taipei a chance to see a female title bout, as well as the male one. The 22 year old Filipino fighter will be up against Mexican foe Ezequiel Aviles , 6 , who will be fighting outside of Mexico for the first time. It's worth noting that Aviles has only been stopped once in 21 bouts, but that loss was last time out, when Oliver Quintana stopped him in 10 rounds. It's also worth noting that Aviles has also been out of the ring for over a year following that loss The card will also set to feature the debut of Uzbek prospect Elnur Abduraimov , though his opponent hasn't yet been announced.

The highly touted Jalolov, a former amateur standout, will be up against Thomas Hawkins , 1 who has lost his last 3 and is without a win in over 4 years. Given how we have seen Uzbek fighters handled we're hoping this will be Jalolov's last bout at this level before he goes up against someone who can test him. He's too good to spend time against fighters like Hawkins. April 17th-Koura and Tanaka headline stacked Dangan card! Tokyo, Japan Fight fans in Japan really do get to see the title action action flow through this month, and for a fourth day in a row those fans are set to get title action, as well as an under-card with some pretty notable names on it.

The first of three notable under-card bouts will see the hard hitting Tetsuya Tomioka , 5 battle against Ryuto Oho , 2 in a bout to crown the first ever Japanese Youth Light Flyweight champion. The hard hitting Tomioka was involved in a thriller almost a year ago with Katsunori Nagamine, and proved he was one to keep an eye on there, but has been stopped twice in 7 and may well find himself burning out quickly given he has a very exciting and aggressive style.

With 15 fights under his belt Oho is more experienced than Tomioka, but has lost 2 of his last 3, including an opening round defeat to Seigo Yuri Akui. This should be a really entertaining mid-card bout, and could well be a bit of a show stealer. At her best Kuroki is a genuine talent, in fact she defended the WBC title 5 times between her May coronation and her December loss to Koseki.

Though against Koseki she was second best, by quite some margin. As for Kanda she has challenged for world and OPBF honours herself, but looks some way from being class. Kanda will be there to win, but Kuroki shouldn't struggle to get back to winning ways here. The chief support bout, and probably the biggest mismatch on the card sadly, will see former world title challenger Shingo Wake , 15 take on Filipino visitor Roman Canto , 7.

Wake is expected to be moved into a Japanese title fight with Yusaku Kuga later in the year and this bout looks little more than a stay busy contest, just to keep the ring rust off before that fight takes place. Canto is a naturally bigger man, having fought a fair bit at Super Featherweight, but really shouldn't be much of a test for the talented Wake.

The exciting champion saw his 5 fight stoppage run come to an end last time out, as he struggled to over-come Masataka Taniguchi in a thrilling and hotly contested bout, but will be looking to impose his power again here. For the 33 year old Tanaka, this will be a second shot at a title, following a loss to Akira Yaegashi and although he will be the under-dog he is experienced and tough, and has never been stopped.

On paper this could be a tough test for Koura, but one we expect him to pass. November 11th-Dangan set to shine on Saturday! Tokyo, Japan Title action continues in Tokyo for a second day running, with a trio of title bouts at the Korakuen Hall, including an OPBF title defense, a Japanese youth title defense and a bout for a vacant Japanese youth title, as well as a Japanese title eliminator. It's fair to say fans are in store for a packed card! The most notable of the title bouts will see the fast rising Tsubasa Koura , 8 defending his OPBF Mnimumweight title against former amateur stand out Masataka Taniguchi , 6.

The champion will be making his first defense of the title, a title that he won this past July, and he will be looking to continue his impressive stoppage run, which currently stands at 5 stoppages including wins over Jeffrey Galero and Jaysever Abcede. As for Taniguchi this will be his second title bout, having come up short in a bout against Reiya Konishi for the Japanese title. At Lightweight we'll see Japanese Youth champion Izuki Tomioka , 1 defending his title for the first time, and facing off with with 21 year old puncher Taiju Shiratori , 5. As for Shiratori he's stopped his last 3 foes but this is a step up in class for him and going to be a test of how he can cope with a very skilled fighter.

These two both fought in the Semi-Final of the Japanese Youth tournament on August 23rd with Hiraoka blowing out Ukyo Yoshigai in 3 rounds whilst Kobayashi struggled to over-come Hayato Ono, avenging one of his two losses. Despite there being 3 title bouts on this show the main event is technically a Japanese title eliminator at Light Middleweight as former national Welterweight champion Nobuyuki Shindo , 7 takes on veteran Cobra Suwa , Shindo's reign at lbs was a short lived one, lasting just over 3 months, and he has fought only once since, getting off the canvas to defeat Sansouke Sasaki.

The 37 year old Suwa had been a professional for more than 14 year and although he has challenged for both the OPBF and JBC titles he hasn't had a career defining win, but will know that a title fight in could given him one last chance. One other bout of note here will see recent Japanese title challenger Ryoichi Tamura , 5 take on experienced Filipino Robert Udtohan , Tamura recently challenged Yusaku Kuga, and gave Kuga all sorts of hell showing his power, aggression and energy. The Filipino is best known for his bout Qiu Xiao Jun, in which he was stopped in 3 rounds.

It's hard to see Udtohan win here, but this should be a very entertaining contest. One of those fighters is hard hitting Uzbek Welterweight Shohjahon Ergashev , 9 , who will be making his US debut and risking his perfect record against Marquis Hawthorne , 1. The Uzbek has taken out his first 9 foes in a combined 15 rounds and looks like a genuine monster, though with this being his first fight Stateside it really does look like he's being matched softly on paper.

Hawthorne has shown little power during his career so far, but has only been stopped once and should be able to test Ergashev's power. Also on the card is unbeaten American based Kazakh Dimash Niyazov , 5 , though at the time of writing his opponent hasn't been announced. July 29th-Title double header at the Korakuen Hall! Tokyo, Japan The rising generation of Japanese fighters was seen last week when Hiroto Kyoguchi became a world champion in just his 8th professional fight.

This coming Saturday we again see two young Japanese fighters looking to continue their rise, one is a stablemate of Kyoguchi's at the Watanabe gym whilst the other is another heavy handed Minimumweight, and a potential future foe for Kyoguchi. Neither of these men are the most skilled, but both can bang and both like to let their hands go. On paper Kuga should be the favourite, with his higher level of experience and move proven credentials, but Tamura can hit and could be a nightmare in a potential slugfest.


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The other main bout will see Tsubasa Koura , 7 face off with Filipino Jaysever Abcede , 9 , with the winner looking to become the new OPBF Minimumweight champion , claiming a title last held by the aforementioned Kyoguchi. Koura's rise has been great and he really shone last year, stopping Jeffrey Galero in an opening performance, but Abcede cannot be over-looked and he holds a massive win himself, stopping Pigmy Kokietgym just a few fights back.

The winner here will put themselves in the mix for a world title bout and both will feel confidence that they can claim the victory, and the title. In a supporting bout we'll see Naoya Okamoto , 5 take on Gaku Aikawa , 2 in a decent low level domestic bout. Neither of these guys are ranked, but they will be facing off in a nice looking 8 rounder, and the winner will certainly give their career a boost in the arm, which could do the world of good going forward. As with many of these Rookie of the Year cards there are no names of note, but there are some interesting bout.

One of those bouts will see 30 year old Takafumi Minobe take on teenager Rikuto Adachi , 2 in a bout at Welterweight. Given the lack of depth in Japan at lbs the winner of the Rookie of the Year can find themselves in the title picture rather quickly, and that could be the case if the winner of this can go all the way to the Rookie crown in December. The most even bout on the show will see 20 year old Nozomi Yamashoji , 1 take on 21 year old Temin Kimura , 1. The two Super Featherweights have identical records, with Kimura being slightly older Yamashoji have a single round more experience.

Although the two are similar it does need noting that Yamashoji has been out of the ring for more than a year, and that could show here. Metro Manila, Philippines In Metro Manila fight fans get a low level card littered with notable names. The most notable of those names is 2-time world title challenger Jonathan Taconing , 20 , who fights in a 10 round bout against journeyman Silem Serang , 1.

Originally Taconing was supposed to be defending his WBC International Light Flyweight title but that appears to be off, likely with Serang not being eligible for the title given his recent form, with 5 losses in his last 6. The card also features some unbeaten prospects. One of those is the heavy handed Abraham Bullagay , 9 , who looks to record a 10th win as he takes on veteran Ryan Tampus , 8 in a bout scheduled for 8. Given that Tampus has been stopped 8 times in 11 bouts it's hard to imagine him coming out on top here.

Another unbeaten puncher on this card is Arvin Magramo , 4 , who was originally pencilled in to take on Anecito Padillo , 2 though it now seems Padillo has removed from boxrec. A third unbeaten prospect in action here is Bryan Ascano , 2 , who takes part in a good looking 6 rounder against Jules Victoriano , 4 , in what should be the best bout on the show, and is clearly the most well matched.

The card also featured Wilbert Berondo , 4 , who looked to get his career back on track following a run including a loss to Hinata Maruta. The Filipino youngster will be up against domestic journeyman Ruben Traza , 1 in what should be an easy confidence builder for Berondo. Jinan, China For a second day running we get low level Chinese action in Jinan, with the card scheduled to have 8 bouts of 4 rounds on it, with no notable names at all in action. A little prac- tice will rob them of much of their terror. It should be read through carefully, a little at a time, after a diligent study of the Practical Part and a committal of a few pages of the latter to memory shall have caused the student to make some way in the mastery of the language.

The necessity for memorising cannot be too strongly insisted upon. It is the sole means of escape from the pernicious habit of thinking in English, translating every sentence literally from a whispered English original, and therefore beginning and ending by speaking English Japanese instead of Japanese Japanese. It is not only that the words and idioms of Japanese differ from our English words and idioms, but that the same set of cir- cumstances does not always draw from Japanese speakers remarks similar to those which it would draw from European speakers. Japanese thoughts do not run in quite the same channels as ours.

To take a very simple instance. In each of these languages the same kindly hope would be expressed. In Japanese it is differ- ent. The phrase would run thus : Otottsan wa, do de gozaimasu? Go shimpu wa, ikaga de irasshaimasu? This he can do only by dint of much learning by heart. The trouble thus taken will be of infinite advantage to him, even if his ultimate aim be the indoctrination of the Japanese with foreign ideas. It will put him in sympathy with his hearers.

It is true that, of late, English idioms have begun to penetrate into the Japanese language. But it is chiefly into the language of the lecture-hall and the committee-room. The style of familiar every-day speech is as yet scarcely affected by this new influence. It is still doubtful under what family of languages Japan- ese should be classed. There is no relationship between it and Aino, the speech of the hairy aborigines whom the Japanese conquerors have gradually pushed eastwards and northwards.

In structure, though not to any ap- preciable extent in vocabulary, Japanese closely resembles Korean ; and both it and Korean may possibly be related to Mongol and to Manchu, and therefore claim to be included in the Altaic group. Be this as it may, Japan- ese is what is generally termed an agglutinative language, that is to say that it builds up its words and grammatical forms by means of suffixes loosely soldered to the root or stem.

Similarly in several of the words recently adopted from English, such as mishin, "a sewing- machine;" Gotto, "the Christian God;" bukkuy " a European book. The earliest Japanese literature that has come down to us. The general structure of the language at that time was nearly the same as it is now. But the changes of detail have been so nume- rous, that a page of eighth century Japanese is unintel- ligible to a modern native of Tokyo without special study. One of the chief factors in the alteration of the language has been the gradual infiltration of Chinese words and phrases, which naturally accompanied the borrowing of Buddhism, Confucianism, and the various arts and sciences of China.

Chinese established itself, so to speak, as the Latin and Greek of Japan. It retains this position even at the present day, supplying names for almost all the new implements, sciences and ideas, which are being introduced from Europe and America. In this manner, one very curious and quite unexpected result pf the Europeanisation of Japan has been the flood- ing of the language with Chinese terms at a rate never known before.

Thus we have : jo'ki-sefif lit. The Japanese do not pronounce Chinese in a manner that would be intelligible to any Chinaman. They have two standards of pronunciation, both of which are corruptions of the Chinese pronunciation of over a thousand years ago. Usage decrees that the same word shall be pronounced according to the Go-on in some con- texts, and according to the Kan-on in others. Thus the myo of dai-tnyo, " a feudal noble " lit. The practical student will do best to learn words by rote, without troubling himself as to whether each term, if Chinese, be in the Go-on or in the Kan-on, U 6.

The effect of the steady influx of Chinese words during more than a millennium has been to discredit the native Japanese equivalents even when they exist. A foreigner who wishes to be considered an elegant speaker should, therefore, gradually accustom himself to employ Chinese words very freely, except when addressing uneducated persons. Wa-sei, "Japanese made," to Nihon-deki. Some persons indeed, both Japanese and foreign, regret the fashionable preference for Chinese words. But the fashion exists, and to follow it is considered a mark of refinement ; neither is it possible, even were it desirable, for an outsider to set up a standard of his own, different from that acknowledged by the people themselves.

On the other hand, much confusion is caused by the fact that numbers of Chinese words are pronounced alike. In any case, whether he speak simply or learnedly, the student should at least avoid speaking vulgarly. Japanese resembles English in being full of slang and vulgarisms of every sort. But what should we say to a young Japanese, who, having been sent to London to learn our language, should return home with the haccent of 'Ighga'te and the diction of the street Arab?

Practical students are strongly advised to devote them- selves to it alone. If they speak it well, they will be as generally understood as a man who speaks standard English is generally understood in England, that is to say that they will be understood everywhere by all but the peasantry, and in most provinces even by the peasantry. The Kana syllabary is a native Japan- ese invention, dating back over a thousand years. There are two principal forms of it. We cannot, within the limits of the present work, treat any further of this subject.

Stu- dents desirous of pursuing it are recommended to begin by the Hira-gana, and then pass on to a study of the most usual Chinese square characters, as given in Mr. One of the best is Mr. The Kata-kana, though so much more simple- looking than the Hira-gana and the Chinese characters, is less understood by the people at large. At the present day there is a party in favour of the introduction of the Roman alphabet. Its organ, the " Romaji Zasshi,'' gives articles in various styles, romanised according to Dr.

Hepburn's simple phonetic system, which is now general- ly followed by foreigners who write on Japanese subjects, and which has therefore been adopted in this Handbook. It is possible to learn to speak Japanese quite correctly without studying the native system of writing. Unfor- tunately the acquirement of the Colloquial does not help much towards the comprehension of books, newspapers, and letters, even supposing the student to have them read aloud to him.

The Japanese are still in the state in which we were during the Middle Ages. They donpt write as they speak, but use an antiquated and indeed partly artificial dialect whenever they put pen to paper. This is the so-called "Written Language.

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The student, who does not wish to trouble about the characters, cannot do better than write out one of these books from his teacher's dic- tation. It should be added that they contain not a few passages to which lady students would take exception. This is the case with all Japanese fiction. It is not that the Japanese novelists love to wallow, Zola-like, in vice. H On the contrary, their sentiments mostly leave nothing to be desired. But they have a startlingly realistic way of calling a spade a spade.

It deals with middle and lower class life during the last days of the ShOgunate. A word as to the parts of speech in Japanese. Strictly speaking, there are but two, the verb and the noun. The pronoun and numeral are simply nouns. The true' adjective including the adverb is a sort of neuter verb. There is no article. Altogether our grammatical categories do not fit the Japanese language well.

In conclusion, the following warnings concerning errors into which European speakers of Japanese are apt to fall, may be found useful : — Do not confound long and short vowels. Do not use personal pronouns too freely. Do not insert the postposition wo between a true adjec- tive and the noun to which it belongs.

See I1 Do not apply honorifics to yourself. XI, honorifics can only be applied to other people, and humble terms must be used in speaking of oneself. I shinjo lit. I haiken lit. See II If you hear beggars in the street shouting after you to shinjo a copper to them, it is only because, having learnt from experience that foreigners constantly misuse the honorifics, they think to ingratiate themselves and to be more easily under- stood by doing likewise.


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Were they addressing a Japan- ese, they would never dream of saying anything so rude and so absurd. Pronunciation and Letter -Changes. If II. Japanese, when written phonetically with the Roman alphabet, according to the phonetic spelling sanctioned by the Romanisation Society and Dr. The vowels are sounded as in Spanish and Italian, but are always short, unless marked with the sign of long quantity. Long a hardly occurs, excepting in the interjections a! Thus ue "above;" kon-in, "marriage;" and shio, " salt," are respec- tively pronounced and by many transliterators written uye, konyitij and shiwo.

I5 IT The quiescent vowels are distinguished in this work by the sign of short quantity, as hito, shlta, takusatiy uma. But it should be noted that the Japanese themselves are not conscious of failing to pronounce the t's and u's in question, and that these letters often recover their proper power for the sake of clearness or emphasis.

They count in prosody, and are always sounded even in or- dinary conversation by the natives of many provinces. That is why they are allowed to remain in the translitera- tion, being generally written i and u without any diacritical mark. Be very careful to discriminate final e from final i. The 'diphthongs acy ai, ao, au, eif oiy ui, call for no remark, each vowel retaining its own proper sound, as in Spanish or Italian. Thus the second syllable of kirei, " pretty," sounds nearly like the English word "ray not j6 pronunciation and letter-changes. It is customary to write the present tense of certain verbs with a final on rather than with o, in order to show the original and theoretical conformity of these verbs to the general rule whereby the present tense must always end in u, H G never has the sound of j.

At the beginning of a word it is pronounced hard, like the g in " give. Foreigners often err in pronouncing such words as Kiga like King-ga, and kago, " a palanquin," like kang-go, etc. In Western Japan, g retains its hard pronunciation in all situations. Careful Japanese speakers attempt not always success- fully to avoid this errOr. R is the very softest of English r's, and is never rolled or gargled as in French and German. In the present work the w has been retained in all such cases, in order to conform to the usage of Dr. Hepburn's dictionary. Frenchmen, Germans, and other Continentals are apt to sound a v instead of a w.

This bad habit should be carefully guarded against. Y is always a consonant. All Japanese words theoretically end either in a vowel or in the consonant n. But the fact of the occasional quiescence of i and u produces the impression that there are words ending in other consonants. Thus the polite termination masu e. In no other case is the clipping of final vowels to be recommended.

Generally speaking, the Japanese pronunciation both of vowels and of consonants is less broad and heavy than that current in most European languages, and especially in English. Tones, such as those of the Chinese, are entirely absent. There is little or no tonic accent, and only a very slight rhetorical accent ; that is to say that all the syllables of a word and all the words of a sentence are pronounced equally, or nearly so. Students must beware of importing into Japanese the strong and constantly recurring stress by which, in English and in mpst European languages, one syllable in every polysyl- labic word, and the chief words in every sentence, are sin- gled out for special notice.

Thus, to quote the names of places familiar to every traveller in Japan, you must arti- culate HakonCy Miyanoshitaj Ashinoyu, with every sylla- ble equal excepting the I of Miyanoshita, which quiesces , thus: Ha-ko-ne, Mi-ya-no-shtay A-shi-no-yu, all short and all without emphasis. Europeans excruciate Japanese ears when they say Hakdne, Miyanoshfa, and AsIiinSyu, Only occasionally, among the lower classes, does the desire for exceptional emphasis cause a word or syllable to be accented in a peculiarly declamatory manner, which Europeans find difficulty in imitating.

The strength of the entire body seems to be concentrated on the production, on the laborious squeezing out, 'of the word in question. The statement made in the above paragraph concerning the absence of accent in Japanese is intended rather for purposes of practical instruction than of scientific accuracy. But so extremely slight is it, that it has never been marked in any dictionary whether native or foreign, it has no influence on prosody, it varies from province to province, and inhabitants of the same province contradict, not only each other but themselves, in their usage and in the explanations which they give concerning it.

The tendency of Englishmen, and indeed of all Europeans excepting Frenchmen, is always to accentuate Japanese much too strongly. New-comers cannot do better, at least for the first few years, than endeavour not to accentuate it at alt. Nigori, i. The two categories together are termed sei-daku by the native grammarians, sei being the Chinese word for " clear," and daku for " muddled.

The Tokyo pronunciation ignores this delicate distinction, and has English j but just a trifle softer for both alike. Sonants, k into g. This is called the han-nigori or "half-muddling. In some words of native origin, the Tokyo people, led by the same love of reduplication which makes them say minna for mina, "all," tokkuri iov tokuri, "a bottle," etc. Hence kaza-kamiy " windward," never kaza-gami, and similarly in innumerable like instances. Observe, too, that no nigorV ed letter is ever doubled. As shown by the examples of jum-pu and tem-peny n changes to tn before a labial.

Less important than the nigori affecting initial con- sonants, is a change which affects the final vowels in certain native Japanese words of one syllable and two syllables. We state the rule as in the text simply for practical convenience.

Full text of "A Handbook of Colloquial Japanese"

All the Japanese consonants do not admit of being sounded before all the five Japanese vowels. F only occurs before the vowel w, the other four vowels taking h instead. W occurs only before the vowel a ; y only before the vowels a, and m. Compare, however, IF The phenomena mentioned in this paragraph seem to be of comparatively modern growth, though they can be traced back some three centuries. To the practical student the peculiarity above noted is interesting only in so far as it affects the conjugation of verbs. Hence such metamorphoses as the following : — berumottOf from " ver- mouth. Finally certain contractions are brought about by euphony and the desire for speedy elocution.

Such are ip-pun for ichi fun, " one minute ; " jis-so, for ju so, " ten vessels. The Noun. The noun is indeclinable, distinctions of number and gender being left to be gathered from the context, and case relations being, as in English, indicated by separate words, which are, however, " postpositions," not preposi- tions.

The words osu and mesu are never applied to human beings, whereas the words otoko and onna are applied indifferently to human beings and to other living creatures. In a very few cases, chiefly the names of the degrees of relationship, the sexes are distinguished by the use of different words, thus : chichi, "father;" haha, "mother. Another method of expressing plurality is by agglu- tinating certain particles, viz. Onna-shu may be used in speaking of the female attendants of another ; onna-domo is better in speaking of the female attendants in one's own house- hold.

The suffix ra is decidedly contemptuous. We may also chiefly in vocables borrowed from the. They occur only in compounds. But though the ways of indicating sex and number are thus various, it cannot be sufficiently borne in mind that they are all more or less exceptional, and are scarce- ly found except in a comparatively small number of cases which are sanctioned by usage. Distinctions of sex and even of number are not dwelt on at every moment by the Japanese, as they are by the European, mind.

Compound nouns are very numerous and can be form- ed at will. As the indefinite forms of verbs are themselves constantly used as nouns, two such forms may combine to constitute a compound noun, or else one of them may be preceded by a noun or by an adjective stem for the same purpose. The following are specimens of the various sorts of compound nouns : — furO'ha, "a bath-room ; " iromfuro, " a bath," and ba used only in composition , " a place. Observe the tendency of the second member of the com- pound to take the nigori Conf.

The forms indicating gender and some of those in- dicating number are really compounds, as will be seen by reference to If 37 and II Sometimes, however, the two members of the com- pound are co-ordinated, thus : tsuki-hi, " months and days. The above are Chinese vocables. The student should note the difference in construction between genuine native compounds and those borrowed. In genuine Japanese com- pounds the verb comes last, as in English, tlrus : hara-kiri, "belly-cutting," the old form of legalised suicide.

Take, for instance, the elegant Chinese synonyms for hara-kiri and kami-hasami, which are preferred by cultured speakers, viz. Hyphens need not be used so freely as we, for etymological purposes, have here done. The distinction between such pairs of words as gen-an and genan is strongly marked in pronunciation. Men's personal names, answering to our Christian names, are also nearly always compounds. Unfortunately few of these personal names can be translated, founded, as they are, on allusions to texts in the Chinese Classics, to feudal functions now obsolete, to cyclical signs, and to other difficult matters.

Such names as Ta-ro, "big male," i. All Chinese words of more than one character are com- pounds, e. As shown in the foregoing examples oimichi, " road," and Mikado, " Emperor," honorific prefixes sometimes enter into the actual formation of words. I1 Abstract nouns expressing degree as well as quality are often derived from adjective stems by agglutinating the syllable sa, thus : atsusa, " heat," " the degree of heat. A tinge or soupgon of a quality, hence sometimes the actual quality itself, and even the object possessing the quality, may be denoted by the termination mi agglutinat- ed to an adjective stem, thus : akamiy - "a tinge of red.

UiHdueBB accus. J7 These periphrases in koto are often used exclamatorily, ' thus : Atsiii koto! For mono wo at the end of a sentence, see 1i Owing to the general Japanese habit of naming persons after places, such words as the above come to denote, not only the "book-store," the "butcher's shop," and the " bakery," but by extension the " bookseller," the " but- cher," and the "baker" themselves. Sometimes indeed the person only, and not the place, is thus designated, as: kuruma-ya, " a jinrikisha-man " shimhun-ya, " a newspaper man. Names of trees and plants often terminate in ki, " tree," or in its nigorVcd form gi, thus : hagi, " the lespedeza.

Kojitna, lit, " Small Is- land," a name common to several islands off the Japanese coast. Observe the suppressed negative which hazu sAmost always implies. Observe, too, that kaztt is often strengthened by a preceding beki, "should," "ought," thus : Areba, jiki ni kiku-beki hazu da ga, etc. IF and IF I may say that I will give you ten dollars a month. TnkoiPO is often, in familiar talk, nigori'ed to dokoro, and then expresses an almost scornfully strong degree of affirmation. For instance, a male visitor hazards the remark that his hostess's baby is old enough to creep abng the floor.

The Japanese parts of speech do not exactly coincide with ours see I19 , and nouns are much more extensiyely used in this language than in English. We shall see in the next chapter that the so-called pronouns are really nouns. As first member of a compound, thus: Ajnerika-jin, lit. Some of these words — kirei, for instance, — are so con- stantly used as adjectives, that their proper sense as nouns tends to pass out of remembrance.

The Pronoun. The Japanese words corresponding to the personal pronouns of European languages are simply nouns whose original significations are quite clear, and which are in- deed still often used with those significations. Except for the sake of convenience to foreign students, it would not be necessary to discuss them apart from nouns in general. Ora, which may often be heard from the mouths of coolies, is for ore wa. It Omae, lit. Omae san san is short for sama stands half-way between anaia and omae in politeness. It is much used by women. Sensei " senior," is used chiefly in addressing men or women of learning.

Danna satp, " Mr. Master," is used by a ser- vant in addressing his master, and by inferiors generally. Besides the above may be mentioned Heika, lit. Etymologically khama means " exalted Sir ; " but, like many other words, it has fallen from its former high estate. The word temae, lit. The rude use of it came in through the dropping of the honorific. Sensei f Danna san, Heika, and Kakka are as appro- priate for the third person " he " or " she " as for the second.

Anata may also occasionally be heard in that sense. Much in use also for " he and " she " are awo hito, " that person," more politely ano o kata, lit. Thus " to clap one's hands " is simply te wo tataku, lit. The word htto has been adduced by some as an equivalent off the French impersonal on.

Like other nouns — indeed more frequently than other nouns — the so-called personal pronouns may take the plural suffixes mentioned on page The following forms are sanctioned by usage : watakHshi-domo boku-ra sessha-domo sessha-ra oira for ore-ra, very vulgar ano hito-tachi ano kata-gata are-ra rude "they. Observe, however, that ivatakushi-domo is often used for the singular, it being slightly humbler than watakushi. Note, moreover, that the Japanese never use their words for "we," as we sometimes do ours, to signify " you and I.

Like other nouns, the so-called personal pronouns may be followed by postpositions. Thus, just as we say ano ho no oya I u the parent of that child,". Just as we say i. The chief thing to remember in connection with the Japanese nouns answering to our personal pronouns is the extremely rare use that is made of them.

Except in cases of special emphasis or antithesis, the information concerning persons which is in European languages con- veyed by means of pronouns, is left to be gathered from the context. Kore kara furo wo tsiikaimash6,]i. I can only, eat my own dinner, I probably only love my own country, and only work to support my own wife and children.

A Japanese will often discourse for half-an-hour without using a single personal pronoun. The perpetual recurrence of watakushi and anata is one of the surest signs of a clumsy foreign speaker, who translates his own idiom into Japan- ese, instead of thinking impersonally as the Japanese do. These remarks will lead the intelligent student to observe that most of the examples scattered throughout the pre- sent work are susceptible of being variously rendered. Where, for instance, we have put " I," it would often be equally correct to insert " he," " she " or " they," in its stead.

The use of " you," that is of the second person, in English generally necessitates some change in the Ja- panese phrase, especially if an equal or superior be ad- dressed. This point will be elucidated in the Chapter on Honorifics, IF et seq. So is that of the phrase waga hai, " we," more lit. The demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite pro- nouns, being marked by certain correspondences of sound and formation, may be best studied by means of the table which we give on the next page. The adverbs derived from the same roots are also given there, so that the learner may embrace all the kindred forms in one glance.

He must note furthermore that Japanese, like French, distinguishes substantive forms of these pronouns from adjective forms, e. M bb CO. Which shall I take? Dare ga kimashUa? Konna nedan, Sono mama, Sonna koto, So iu koto. A no takai yama. Dono tsumori de? Do iu tsumori de? What we have here, for convenience' sake, termed adjective forms, are not adjectives properly so called. Kono was originally two words, viz. Mata donata ka miemashita. Dochira ga yoroshiu pozaimasho? II The Japanese language has neither relative pronouns nor relative words of any kind.

Their absence is general- ly made good by the use of a construction in which the verb is prefixed to the noun attributively, just as an adjec- tive might be. Catne per torn. Ano yama no zetcho ni haete iru oki na OH growing it large matsu, pine. As shown in the foregoing examples, the English relative and verb are represented in Japanese by a verb alone, which is used participially, or, as it is more usual to say in Japanese grammar, attributively, prefixed to the noun. Properly speaking, all the tenses are capable of being thus used attributively in relative constructions. In the Book Language they are all constantly so used.

Hep- jiten. Hepburn's Metiomary. Arashi to iu mono. This impersonal but active construction with to iu and other synonymous verbs, corresponding to the English passive, must be thoroughly mastered, as it is constantly in the mouths of the people. It is often used for making general assertions, such as Lit. As-for wa the thing mono of which people say lu that to it is a dog inu , it is desu a thing ftnono which is aru of no faithfulness chugi.

Here our single word " dog" or " dogs " is rendered by the five words inu to iu mono wa. This use of the active where a European would expect the passive sometimes causes an appearance of ambiguity. Thus shiranai hito may signify either " a person who does not know " or "a person who is not known to me ," i. The terseness of the Japanese expressiona s compared with ours should not occasion any insuperable difficulty to the careful student. In such cases the Japanese language uses the gerund in set speeches the indefinite form for the verbs of every clause, excepting that im- mediately preceding the noun qualified see II et seq, and U et seq.

An instance of this construction is given in the example on the foregoing page, where totna- rimashlte is a gerund and irimashtta a past tense, both qualifying the word yadoya. But this idiom — the referring of several relative clauses to one noun — is not a favourite one in Colloquial Japanese. The last example on the foregoing page, viz. Indeed a great number of relative phrases — even single relative phrases — are turned in some other way. M," quite" it has- cleared".

The words tokoro nOy lit. They owe their origin to the slavish imitation of a Chinese idiom. Shinakucha naran tokoro ,, Shinakucha naran no koto desuy koto desii.

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For the translation of these phrases see p. TJie Postposition. Japanese postpositions correspond for the most part to English prepositions, serving like them to indicate those relations of words which Latin, German, and other Aryan languages of the older type denote by the use of case inflections. There are two kinds of postpositions, viz.

The postpositions proper, with their most usual significations, are as follows : DE. De has two widely different uses. One is to render the sense of "by," whence also "with," "by means of," less often " in. In its second acceptation, de seems at first sight to mean, nothing at all, and thus puzzles the foreign student who is desirous of accounting for its presence in the sentence. De is here etymologically a corruption of nite, itself the gerund of an obsolete substantive verb. Its proper sense is therefore " being. It is a moot point whether what was originally one word has branched out into these two significations, or whether two words ori- ginally distinct have coalesced into a single particle.

I caught in this stream? De has its second signification, i. The first of these phrases illustrates a construction with what are called " quasi-adjectives," which will be touched on again in H , and exemplified in H examples 9 and The foregoing examples would therefore generally become Yoppodo heppin da, San-ji han desu. The following is a very common phrase illustrating this idiom : Sayo de gozaitnasu. Less formal. IF 8g. It happens not infrequently that de, in both its accep- tations, is strengthened by means of the postposition wa, especially in phrases expressing interrogation, negation, or something disagreeable.

When the substantive verb has a qualifying word or phrase along with it after de, the noun followed by de often corresponds to an English nominative, — not that de has DE AND GA. I Government. Sake ga kirai desu. I am very of smok- fond ing. Modern usage alone has made them so, just as, to borrow an apt illustration from Mr. Aston, the incomplete sentences of an English telegram or advertisement convey a predicative sense to the mind of the reader. Observe too, from the example Isha ni mite morau ga yokaro, that postpositions may be sufExed to verbs as readily as to substantives, and that verbs, and indeed whole phrases, may form the subject or object of other verbs.

When found at the end of a clause, ga has an adver- sative force, of which "whereas" is the most literal English equivalent, but which is generally best rendered GA. Sometimes ga with this adversative force is repeated in two consecutive clauses, as : "This is the third time I have made the ascent of Fusi- yama, and I have each time been lucky enough to have fine weather. Ka serves to ask a question, as : Arimasu. Arimasu ka? Sometimes ka expresses a merely rhetorical or ironi- cal question, sometimes nothing beyond a mere shade of doubt.

Suzuki to ka iu hito, i "A man called, if I. The past itta kara means " because he has gone ; " mimashita kara means " because I have seen. The idea is that the lecture, beginning as it does at two o'clock, will last from two to some other hour not named. A siitiilar instance octlirs in the second example given under made. Made means " till, " " as far as, " " down to, " " to : " Kore made. Watakushi no kuru made JfTe. How far is the railway -finished?

MO,- IF Mo means "even," "also," "and," "too. And you mustn't forget this either;" or "Nor must you forget this. JY'0i'being fact aito it'HOi. For mo serving to form expressions analogous to the con- cessive mood, see H It is a relic of the Book Language, and has little or no meaning now. This sentence is a good example of the apparent ambiguity of relative constructions in Japanese, which was pointed out in H The speaker of course means to say that the thingi in the shop sell well ; but he seems to say that it is the shop itself which sells well.

Ni has many other idiomatic uses, of which the following are the chief, viz. B, It 18 only with the indefinite fonn of the verb that ni has this meaning. When, as often happens, it follows the present tense used as an infinitive, it preserves its original force, thus : Michi ga warukute, aruku ni. I walking" b0meM nom. Mada neru ni wa hayai. Ni suffixed to nouns serves to form expressions corresponding to European adverbs, as : daiji, " importance," " care ; " daiji ni, " carefully.

When several things are enumerated, ni often means " besides the foregoing," " and : " Lit. A proverb. H flowers, and the warrior the king of men. IT no. Ari is Lit. The same tendency is exemplified by wo, though less frequently in the Colloquial than in the Written Language, thus : ' "It is dangerous to cross the line when the train is passing. IT HI. No is used in attributive phrases either in lieu of, or suffixed to, the other postpositions, it being a rule that none of the postpositions excepting no can show the relation between two nouns in such phrases.

An example or two will make this clearer : i Konoura niike ga gozaimasu. Country fromt ieiegrmm nom. In this manner no, "of," comes to express almost every idea of relation ; or rather all the various ideas of relation come to be summed up by the Japanese mind under the one idea of " of; " thus : Atami no onsen. No is used substantively with the meaning of the English word "one" or "ones" see also H , thus : Warui no. No often serves to form expressions corresponding to English adjectives, as Nikon no, "of Japan," i. Sometimes, in quite familiar talk, it occurs as a final particle with a certain emphatic force, corresponding to that of the Colloquial English phrase " and so there!

At other times, — and this is a very favourite idiom, — no is employed as a kind of equivalent for the word koto meaning "act," "fact. Nani wo sum n' desii? The verb da, "is," and the postposition no combine to form the word dano, which serves for pur- poses of enumeration. Dano must, like the Latin que, be repeated after each of the items enumerated, thus : Shishi dano, tora dano, "Lions, tigers, elephants z6 dano, rakuda dano.

There is a difference between dano and ni see IT used enumeratively. Ni is simply copulative, dano conveys the idea of a multiplicity of objects. But when he says sake ni, sakana ni, kwashi, he speaks of just those three and no more. Observe, moreover, that the word dano is somewhat vulgar. The polite equivalent is de gozaimasu no, but this is less often used. No sometimes serves as an enumerative after other than the substantive verbs. NOf in its proper sense of "of," is sometimes replaced in the higher style by the Chinese word teki. IT 1x6. Occasionally shi seems to terminate a sentence ; but this is only because the speaker, after finishing the first clause, finds himself at a loss concerning the second, and so perforce leaves the sentence unfinished.

To originally had the sense of our demonstrative pronoun " that," but it now has the sense of our conjunction " that : " Uso da to iimasu. J ne says mat It isa lie. Honto da to omoimasu. Originally therefore the sense was : '' It is a lie. He says that. I think that. Said to acorn- mphaiihattatf f mon person, " What is your name?

M Tokyo Mar u. Similarly in the case of such onomatopoetic adverbs as hatto, kittOj patattOj etc. Take, for instance, the com- mon Colloquial phrase Nan to? H ii8. Women and the lower classes often end a sentence by ttej when they should say to iimasu or to iimashlta, ir To sometimes means "and. Even when not so repeated, it always be- longs to the word immediately preceding it, not to the word following it. Europeans often make the mistake of commencing a clause by to, in imitation of the European idiom which introduces clauses by the conjunc- tion " and.

Am hito to ikimashlta. Kore to wa chigaimasu. Ur, it diirer,. Observe also such adverbial phrases as shi-awase to, " luckily. To sometimes comes to mean "if" or "when. J SCOlding. Observe the strong affirmative force of to generally followed by mo at the end of an assertion, thus : " Are there any?

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Wa was originally a noun signifying " thing, " hence "that which," "he, she, or they who ";. But in practice its force is generally sufficiently indicated in an English translation by an emphasis on the equivalent of the word to which wa is suffixed, or by placing that word in a prominent position in the sentence. In an interrogative sentence, wa would sometimes seem to be the means of asking a question ; but an ellipsis must always be supplied. For instance Inn wa? This idiom is heard only in quite familiar talk, and especially from the lips of women ; thus : Watashi wa, kono ho ga ii wa!

A me wa, futte imasiika? Kotowatte okimashlta. The former of these two phrases states the fact of the refusal, and nothing more. The latter emphasises it; but the emphasis is the emphasis of hesitation, as if one should say, " I did indeed refuse, but my refusal was tempered by politeness ; it was not communicated abrupt- ly, neither was it unreasonable in itself.

A consideration of the foregoing examples, and in- deed of those which any page of Japanese affords, will con- vince the student that wa is not, as some European writers have erroneously imagined, a sign of the nominative case. The following example, which is the last we will quote, illustrates this fact almost to the point of absurdity. It is race-day, let us suppose.

The nearest approach made by the Colloquial Japanese Language to the posses- sion of a nominative particle is in the particle ga see p. But even this, as has been there explained, origin- ally meant " of," that is to say, was a sign of the geni- tive, not of the nominative. There is, however, a differ- ence of stress. When ga is used in any such phrase, we must emphasise the subject in the English translation ; when iva is used, we must emphasise the predicate.

The Japanese themselves, as stated in IT 27, are not much given to the use of such emphasis. They prefer a change in the actual words. Thus Kore ga it means " This is good ; " whereas Kore wa ii means " This is good. Hayashi is dead. Ha- yashi is dead,'' tin comparative sentences the rule is very simple.

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On the other hand, wa is emphatic and separative in Japanese, though there will generally be no emphasis on the corresponding portion of the phrase in English, when the English noun is a nominative. Wa, however, corres- ponds to an emphasised word in English whenever that word is not a nominative, as shown by several of the examples given above.

It may be asked: what is the rule in the case of two nominatives in antithetical clauses? The answer is that either ga may be used in both, or else wa may be used in both. Thus the fifth example on p. The effect would be to throw the emphasis more strongly on the two subjects than on the two predicates. Wo is the nearest Japanese equivalent to a sign of the accusative case, thus : Tamago wo uderu. A girl's marrying is called yome ni iku, lit.

Originally wo was nothing more than an interjec- tion serving, as it were, to interrupt the sentence and draw attention to the word to which it was suffixed. We must therefore not be surprised at its absence in many cases where European languages could not dis- pense with the accusative case. It is not that the wo has been dropped in such contexts, but that it never was there, thus : Baka iu. To translate. Here the first clause literally means "placing the ministers of state at the beginning. In the Written Language, wo is often used adversa- tively at the end of a clause.

Ya is an interrogative and exclamatory particle of constant occurrence in the Written Language. In the Colloquial it is less used, excepting in such contexts as Haru ya! It also occurs corruptly for wa after the in- definite forms of verbs, as explained in the N. Q other. Hepburn's Dictionary. Rokumeikwan is the name of a well-known public building in Tokyo. It signifies " the Hall of the Cry of the Stag," in allusion to a line of ancient Chinese poetry. Koko ye oite qite kudasai. The second oite is the sanfe verb as the first, but has only the force of an auxiliary see 1[ Some instances have already occurred in the preced- ing portions of this chapter.

For a still more emphatic construction with jii way see 1[ Phrases of this kind are idiomatic and in constant use. No followed by other postpositions generally has the substantive force of the English word " one " or " ones," already exemplified on pp. Okii no ga hoshii. Though the no of no ni may, as in the last example, be used in the sense of "one" or "ones," it more fre- quently signifies "whereas," "while," "when. As here exemplified, no ni occurs chiefly in phrases expressive of censure or regret.

IT for further details concerning this important idiom. Observe that wo and wa, when combined, change by euphony into woba, which is used to denote a spe- cially emphatic accusative ; also that de wa is often con- tracted into ja, as has already been incidentally mentioned in IT Occasionally an ellipsis must be supplied. Such are, for instance : no hokUf " exterior of," i.

When followed by a verb, the quasi-postpositions take ni after them, except in the case of the substantive verb " to be," which requires de, unless when signifying " there is," etc. Todana no naka desu. Kawa no mukd de gozaimasu. When prefixed attributively to a noun, this class of words changes the wt into no, in accordance with the rule explained in II iii, thus: Tansu no naka no kimono.

The Numeral. In European grammars the numerals are generally disposed of in a few lines, as forming a mere subdivision of the adjective. In Japanese the numeral is rather a species of noun, and a species of noun with marked peculiarities of its own, necessitating its treatment as a separate part of speech.

There are two sets of numerals, one of native and the other of Chinese origin. The native set is now obsolete except for the first ten numbers, which are as follows : — 1 hitotsu 2 futatsu 3 mitsu 4 yotsu 5 itsutsu 6 mutsu 7 nanatsu 8 yatsu 9 kokonotsu 10 to M.

The substantive forms of the numerals may either be used quite alone, or they may follow the noun, or lastly they may take the postposition wo, " of, " and precede the noun. They very rarely precede a noun without the intervention of no. Thus : — Ikutsu gozaimasu ka f—Hitotsu. Mitsu de takusan de gozaimasho.

JBighi hw, wiii-'Bumee f To hakari kudasai. The enumerative form is used in counting over things, e. Though the native Japanese numerals above "ten ". Chi-shima, " the Thousand Isles," i. The Chinese numerals are not often used indepen- dently. Nip-pon, from nitsu hon. I0 " Japan. The Japanese numerals, as far as they go, are most- ly employed with Japanese nouns, and the Chinese nu- merals with Chinese nouns. But there are numerous ex- ceptions to this rule, for instance : it'toki but also ktto-toki , " one hour.

Usage plays various freaks with the numerals. Thus the Chinese numeral shiy " four," which is consider- ed unlucky because homonymous with shi, " death," is in many contexts replaced by the equivalent Japanese numeral yo] for instance :. The vulgar sometimes go a step further, corrupting the yo into yon. Thus they will say yon-jU, instead of ski-ja, " forty. Words of this kind are, in Japanese grammar, termed " auxiliary numerals.

The term "classifier" has also been proposed ; but " auxiliary numeral " is that which has obtained the widest currency. The auxiliary numerals constitute a highly important class of words. For whereas in English such expressions as those just mentioned are somewhat exceptional, they are the rule in Japanese. In some cases, indeed, the numeral is prefixed direct- ly to the noun, e.

I05 person;" ichuriy "one league. The choice of the auxiliary numeral appropriate to each class of words is fixed by custom, a mistake in this matter producing the same absurd effect as does a wrong gender in French or German. The Japanese auxiliary numerals are, however, easier to remember than the French and German genders, since they are generally more or less founded on reason, as will be seen by the following list of those most in use. The presence pf ni causes no such changes. An auxiliary numeral may therefore always be seen in its original shape when following that word.

The chief auxiliary numerals are : ichi'bUy ni, etc. Ip-pai also means " full. This word met is somewhat bookish ; nin is more genuinely Colloquial. Do not confound satsu with few, which latter refers to complete copies of a work, irre- spective of the number of volumes contained in it. But it is safer to use hiki in all cases. This word suffers irregular phonetic changes, thus : 3 sam-ha 4 shi-wa 5 go-wa 6 rop-pa 7 shichi-wa 8 hachi-wa 9 ku-wa 10 jip-pa ir Uta is-shu.

Kagami ichi-inen, KO'gatana ni-cho, Fude sam-bon. Ichi-nim-biki no kuruma. Gunkan jiS'SO. Ushi hyap-piki. Ushi hyaku'to. Suzume sem-ba. Sem-ba suzume. Bmall'biril nom. So please two men is ready for me by then. It will be noticed that all the examples hitherto given of auxiliary numerals are Chinese. But we have classed it under the Chinese auxiliary numerals, because it is always used in conjunction with the Chinese numerals icki, ni, etc. The native auxiliary numerals up to " ten " inclusive take the Japanese numerals before them, thus : futa- hashirUf mi-kumiy mU'tomai.

No euphonic changes take place. Things having no special auxiliary numeral appropriated to them are counted by means of the native Japanese numerals hltotsu, futatsuj etc. In Classical Japanese, human beings are counted by means of the native numerals, with the unexplained suffix tari attached. Ill the particle of vagueness already mentioned in pp. Iku may be replaced by naniy usually shortened to nan in such contexts.

Nani, though itself Japanese, is chiefly found before words of Chinese origin, thus : nan-ji? See t Notwithstanding the existence of such forms as the above, the Japanese mind has not, properly speaking, a very clear idea of the distinction between cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers, for which reason the cardinal numbers are often used in an ordinal senses Thus : — Meiji ni-jU'San-nen lit. Similarly ni-gwatsu or ni-getsu lit. Sometimes the cardinal numbers are distinguished by the insertion of an auxiliary numeral. Years are usually counted by what are termed " year-names" Jap. The present period "Meiji" began with the overthrow of the ShOgunate and the restoration of the Mikado to absolute power in Occasionally of late, years have been counted from the supposititious era of the mythical Emperor Jimmu, who, according to the Japanese history books, was the first human monarch of this empire, and ascended the throne on the nth February, B.

January is called shd-gwatsu, lit. The other months are formed by pre- fixing the Chinese numerals to the word gwatsu or getsu. The counting of the days of the month is a medley of native Japanese and imported Chinese par- lance. The word misoka is tending to pass out of educated usage.

Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition) Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)
Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition) Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)
Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition) Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)
Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition) Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)
Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition) Coming Nozomi 2 Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)

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